H.E. Christian Nakhle, Ambassador of France to Kuwait, speaks about the 21st session of the Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Agreement for Climate Change (COP21), which took place in Paris in 2015 and gives his view on the agreement and its implementation.
How do you evaluate COP21 and the Paris Agreement?
This agreement has many elements and depicts a clear work frame – reduction of emissions and adaptation, financing, transparency, provisions of appraisal of the results and reviews beginning in 2018.
Our duty now is to resume contact with all parties involved in the negotiation and the governments so that we can guarantee that we share in the interpretation of the agreement, which is not less important than the very agreement itself, and continue to work in this Paris spirit characterized by a desire for joint action with trust.
Are you disturbed by the loss of vitality after approval of the agreement at the end of COP 21?
We are concerned about outlining our steps for the year 2020. It must be specified and weighed in the global evaluation of the collective progress that has been achieved. Negotiations must be sufficiently expedited on these tangible issues.
Therefore, we must warrant continuity of the political efforts on a higher level and it is the duty of the chairperson of COP21, (French Foreign Minister) Laurent Fabius, until November 2016, and he shall have many opportunities to do so and keep the torch burning high.
The negotiators shall put the finishing touches on the agenda in full cooperation with Morocco, the host of COP22. Unofficial meetings are going on for preparation of Marrakech in a new way.
Next May, a working team will be established and entrusted with implementation of the Paris agreement (ad hoc Paris Agreement Group – APA). Will it follow the same method as the Durban work team (ADP)?
Of course to some extent certain things shall be similar to ADP but it is important to follow a different method in the work – with more confidence, activity and productivity in the later years. So we must negotiate in order to reach a mandatory agreement.
We have to deal with more specific elements but it is necessary to outline the negotiating team’s agenda. Consultations shall begin effective February end and the first round of unofficial negotiations, organized by Japan and Brazil, shall start as usual in Tokyo at that time. And we shall begin to chalk out Marrakech and consequently the APA agenda.
From the viewpoint of the office of the French President, these measures shall be very active. A working method should be created and we should possess an alternate political capital.
While confidence among the public has increased and is advancing with great speed, priority should be given to topics like with what we should start in 2016 and in 2017 as a very important phase shall begin in the year 2018 with the first review of the obligations.
We should encourage and polarize the countries to be willing to take actions more adventurous and have supplementary procedures.
H.E. Laurent Fabius would like to have 12 December, 2016, be marked as a distinguished landmark, after ratification of the agreement. Will the time of appraisal be treated as the first ratification?
Mr. Fabius’s idea is to officially record this date, and then consider the subject of ratification as we have been away from entering the arena of execution. In France, the draft law that outlines the agreement’s framework must be ratified before summer and the question is to decide if this draft law shall be referred to the Parliament at the same time or coordination done on it in Europe.
How can Kuwait contribute to implementation of this agreement?
Kuwait has started several projects and one example is the Al-Shaqaya Project which was launched in 2011 by Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research and aimed at the use of renewable energy in the country.
A renewable energy station is to be built in the desert, in the western part of the country, and will cover 15 percent of Kuwait’s need for energy. This project is designed to minimize burning of pollutant oil and consequently reduce emissions of carbon dioxide with a margin of 5 million tons.